PID Tuning

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Multirotor PID Tuning[edit | edit source]

Excerpt from BorisB:

P-Term[edit | edit source]

Hover is a good starting point to tune. Find the limits of a quad by getting the best possible hover scenario. Increase P till the point of oscillations and you will know the limit. Sometimes I also tend to find the lower limit by lowering P as long till it becomes unflyable. That's where it becomes very hard to keep it steady in hover (sluggish). You recognize that easily where just simple hovering makes you sweat. Now you know the range of P where you can play to get the best results. To give you an example....on my Mini H with KISS that range was between 3,5 to 6.5 on roll, but I ended with 5,2 I believe, cause introducing some heavy maneuvers like prop wash or full throttle banked turns were still pushing it, while it was fine in hover. It's important to focus on those edge cases to find the best settings for you. It is also a matter of personal taste. Some people like to stay close to the lower limit to have the smoothest video and others like to be as close as possible to the upper limit. ( I am usually in the middle) P is the most important factor and has the biggest influence on flying as you will notice.

I-Term[edit | edit source]

With I term you will notice that your multirotor will hold it's angle better when this is raised. For example too low I on pitch can cause pitching back issues on fast forward speeds and sharp turns tend to brake you down. You don't want to raise I more than it's necessary actually. The more Integral force you introduce the more robotic feel it can get.

D-Term[edit | edit source]

Finally you can optimize D. D is a very simple one. It actually slows down any abrupt action you introduce. To explain this in the way how it feels. With high D your stick action is being dampened and it feels like there is a small delay between your stick input and reaction of the multirotor. The lower D gets the more sharp reaction you get from your stick actions. I definitely prefer more sharper stick feel, but you can't go down too much with D as anything else will become too sharp and you might loose smoothness and get bouncing after flips or rolls or more twitches with small changes introduced by the wind.

Extra[edit | edit source]

There are of course other advanced parameters to play with, but you want to avoid that as much as possible unless its needed. For example to mention TPA. I hate using the TPA, but sometimes you can have very powerfull setups where high throttle edge cases can introduce huge oscillations on the PIDs needed to hover and fly normally. That would mean you need to make your quad sluggish just to prevent oscillating in those rare cases. That's where TPA can offer a solution. You can scale your PIDs to your throttle to have the best of the both worlds. By the way the pid_controller 1 doesn't use TPA and it handles this very good within the pid controller itself. TPA doesn't seem needed on this controller with cleanflight.